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Combinational logic

Representing and using integers and real numbers

Finite-state machines, pushdown automatons and Turing machines

Machine code

Assembly and high-level programming lanaguges

Lists

Characters and strings

Objects

Databases

Queues

Pointers

Imperative and functional programming

Object-Oriented Programming

Emulation

Algorithms

Algorithmic complexity

Dynamic programming

Parallel processing

Divide and conquer algorithms

Greedy algorithms

Sorting and searching lists

Tree search

Tree search with heuristics

Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP)

Floating point maths

Discrete maths

Linear algebra

Lossless compression

Unconstrained optimisation

Constrained optimisation

Knowledge bases

Expert systems

Image manipulation

3D modelling

in objects, OOP. essentially, all variable types are objects. inc integers, floats, lists etc